IES 2016 Interview Experience

Board-  Shri Arvind Saxena

Electrical  AIR 6

Interview score- 142/200

DATE- November 2, 2016

Time- 9:00 AM

I reached UPSC bhavan around 8 AM. First there were many security checks and briefings. then, they will make you wait in the waiting room. a peon will call as your turn comes. Boards were allotted to the groups on interview day itself. We were told that we had a board of Arvind saxena.  There were 4 members (IAS Arvind Saxena and 3 Technical Advisors) in the interview panel, i didn’t knew other three but i believe they were professors from IIT Delhi and Bombay as i have seen them in NPTEL videos. Anyway i will call them AS (Arvind saxena), P1, P2 and P3.

I entered the room there was large table with AS sitting in the middle.

I greeted them all and wished them before asking permission to sit.

AS(Going through my DAF) : So, Mufeed You are from Integrated Dual Degree. Do you get separate degrees of B.Tech and M.Tech or combined?

Me: Sir, We get separate degrees. Earlier we use to get combined degrees.

AS: How is it different from separate B.Tech and M.Tech?

Me: Sir, in these programmes we get direct admission through JEE and  not through gate. Also, a student of IDD(Integrated Dual Degree) saves one year as compared to student going to pursue through Gate. We cover similar courses with B.Tech students till third year ,after that we also attend specialised M.Tech courses.

AS: You have a good CG . Were You the topper?

Me: Nodded with a yes

AS: OK Mufeed tell me why a person gets burn injury if electrocuted?

Me: Sir, it depends on the magnitude of voltage ,if the voltage is high to produce an arc then burn injury happens due to the heat of the arc but not at low voltage.

AS: What are the changes that occur inside human body when a current is passed through it?

Me: Sir,   I am unaware of exact biological phenomena but i have read that current causes muscle contraction and if heart muscles are in the path of current then fibrillation can cause heart muscles to stop. It also depends on the magnitude of current and duration for which current is flowing.

AS: For domestic purposes why MCB’s are used?

Me: Sir, MCB’s are automatically operated electrical switches that are designed to protect humans and equipments from shocks and to isolate faulty parts of the circuit.

AS: Can you explain its working?

Me: Sir, these are low voltage CB’s which uses air as extinguishing medium. Mostly, They works on the heating effect of current. When current exceeds normal limit then bimetallic strip send a trip signal which releases the  loaded spring interrupting the supply.

AS: Are there any other CB’s which works on some other phenomena and not heating effect?

Me: Yes sir, There are many breakers which works on magnetic effect of current also.

AS:   working on heating principle takes time. Suppose if someone gets shock then there can be delay in operation. what do you think?

Me(I was unaware of the answer but tried anyway): Yes sir that’s true, but i think main reason of not using fast breakers for domestic purpose is the cost . Also , the magnitude of voltage is low in households that’s why i think thermal effect based breakers are preferred.

AS: Are you still working ?

Me : sir, I was working with Eaton technologies , i resigned last month.

AS: what you will do now?

Me(smiling): Sir, i will join Engineering services.

AS then asked P1 to take over from here and continue.

P1:    What is the installed power generation capacity in India?

Me: Sir, around 305 GW.

P1: What is the power  consumption in India?

Me:   Sir, Around 190 GW.

P1: Why there is mismatch in supply and demand?

Me: Its due to the transmission losses and also , all power plants do not run at full capacity.

P1: What fascinates you more, solar or nuclear power?

Me: Sir, solar energy as it has the potential of reaching every person and every place. distributed generation is possible in solar energy. Anyone can harness it given the right infra.

P1: Explain the working of solar panel?

Me: Answered with details about low efficiency and cost effects.

P1: Are these panels used in india being manufactured here or imported?

Me: Part of these are manufactured in india itself but due to high cost and low efficiency they are normally imported.

P1 :What is the per  unit electricity cost in your city?

Me: Approx. Rs. 6 per unit.

P1: should we spend more on generating non renewable sources like solar energy what do you think? considering the high cost of solar panels ?

Me: As the energy demand in India is continuously increasing , depending only on the limited conventional sources is not feasible option. We should spend more on research areas to bring down the current high cost associated with renewable energy sources to meet our future energy needs .

P1 referred to P2 to ask further questions

P2: Suppose we need to transfer bulk power at HV, will a single conductor is preferred or more than one and why?

Me: For transferring power at HV generally Bundled conductors are preferred , apart from many advantages they help in reducing corona.

P2: What is corona?

Me: Explained

P2: What is its disadvantages?

Me: Answered

P2: Is there any advantage of corona?

Me: Yes, on a small scale it acts as natural protection against lightening discharging extra energy.

P2: Can you explain power transfer through a transmission line by using EMT?

ME: explained in a sheet of paper using wave equation.(refer stevenson)

P2 : In a substation we are switching on a transformer and the relay is going off , what possible reason can be there?

Me: It can occur due to large inrush current, which can be avoided by switching on the transformer at the right voltage cycle.

P2: Explain in detail?

Me: answered inrush current phenomena with voltage and flux cycle.

P2 reffered to P3 to ask further

P3: What are losses in a transformercore?

Me: answered (Iron and copper losses)

P3: how to avoid them?

Me: answered

P3: what types of materials are being used nowadays to manufacture cores?

Me: Sir, normally si steels are being used. for HF ferrite cores are used.

P3: any other?

Me: air core, mangnese etc. Sorry sir, i am not able to  recall more.

Then AS asked me

As: Will you join Engineering Services if selected?

Me:(instantly with a smile) Absolutely sir.

As: Ok mufeed Thankyou

I stand up and thanked them all while going out.

The End

Conventional paper: A boon not bane

What fears most of the candidates is writing mains/subjective/conventional paper of ESE. The question is why? In my perspective its because most of the other exams(Gate/PSU’s etc) have objective papers only and we have a lot of practice that fear of objective paper is almost gone . But, Lets face it, no one can clear this exam without scoring a decent marks in conventional paper . So how to overcome this fear. One  can do so by understanding the importance of conventional paper. with no second thoughts it is a boon for candidates aspiring to be IES officers.

ESE conventional paper is the most scoring part of this exam where right presentation can increase your marks manifold. I would share few points which I followed while preparing for Conventional paper and also while writing the paper. Conventional paper writing is an art and if done right can sail you high in ranking.

Conventional paper has questions which have sub parts that can be from one topic or different topic. As soon as you get the paper analyse all questions then follow the below steps-

  1. First question- Remember first impression is the last impression. Pick your first question to be answered very carefully as this will set your image in the eye of examiner .Try to avoid cutting and solve the question in one go. For this choose question which you have confidence that you can attempt it in one go.
  2. Use separate color pen to highlight important points that you want examiner to notice. You can underline with black pen if you are answering with blue. This saves time and also makes your answer sheet interesting to check.
  3. you are writing your final answer in a numerical type question cover the answer in a box.
  4. Try to depict with figures and block diagrams as many as possible. This will show that you have a great grasp of basics.
  5. Avoid writing in paragraphs as this makes answers look boring. Also eaxminer may miss important lines in middle of paragraphs. Make your habit of writing in points the way I am answering this question. Believe me this will surely help you in scoring big and also lengthening your answer.
  6. Don’t write unnecessary things and try to be to the point.
  7. Always ,always,always start with a new page for new question. You don’t have to worry about the number of pages in this exam.
  8. While attempting if you are stuck in midway in some part of a question, leave blank space and continue the remaining paper.
  9. You don’t have to answer questions in sequence . But there is one question that you must attempt. You can either attempt this in start or later depending on your convenience.
  10. Try to solve numericals question first because they need fresh mind and it also reduces the chances of silly mistakes.
  11. There is step marking also so if you don’t know full answer then also try to write atleast something. Always try to attempt all questions.
  12. Practice in room for writing conventional. For this, I will suggest to practice only previous year conventional paper of ESE . Most of the questions will be of similar type only.
  13. This is a very easy technique , when you are selecting a question to attempt in conventional make a flow chart in your mind as how u will answer this question. This will avoid unnecessary cutting in middle of question.

Try to understand why I am more focused on impressing the examiner because no doubt if your answer is correct he will give marks anyways. But they are also human and generally IIT profs. So they focus more on approach and proper presentation. Thats why always think of examiners perspective as how can you make your answer sheet stand apart from lakhs of others.

All the best 🙂

Books Coverage for ESE (E&C)

Dear friends
I wish to share with you coverage of standard textbooks which I
referred during my semesters and ESE preparation. I’ve written this
keeping in mind that people generally don’t want to spend time on
books seeing less benefit to cost ratio. In most of the blogs only book
names are referred. But I always wanted to know what to do/leave in a
book. Unfortunately I had to wait till my own result to write this! I’ve
tried to list down the sections which are relevant for ESE exam. After
finishing a subject, do solve previous year’s questions. These questions
will provide more insights on relevance of book you are reading or
whether something more needs to be done.

Many of you in colleges might not be having access to coaching or are
unwilling to spend time and money. Why not study now? It’s ok to feel
lost and demotivated during your preparation. Just make a start. A bit
of sincerity and patience is needed. Let ESE be an option for you and
not a compulsion!

I know there is scope for more refinement in this list. Please suggest
changes and other good books. For suggestions contact me on

Sumit Singh
ESE 2016, AIR 29
ESE 2015 (reserve List)

Microelectronic circuits 6th edition
By Sedra and Smith

Chapter 1(Introduction to Electronics and semiconductors)
leave 1.7.
1.8 to 1.13 can be left (Solve problems only) if covered from

Chapter 2(Diodes)
Refer class notes also (any coaching’s)

Chapter 3(BJTs)
(leave 3.8, 3.10 cover frequency response from Boylestad book)

Chapter 4 (MOSFETs)
Leave 4.10, 4.12, 4.13(but do 4.13.4), 4.16 (VLSI topic)

Chapter 5 (Operational Amplifier)
Don’t leave anything!

Chapter 7: Feedback
Do this topic from boylestad and notes.

Chapter 8 (Differential and multistage Amplifiers)
Do 8.3 and 8.1

Chapter 9 (Operational-Amplifier and Data Converter circuits)
Do 9.1.4, 9.1.7, 9.9, 9.10

Chapter 10 (Digital CMOS logic Logic circuits)
Do 10.3.2 to 10.3.7

Chapter 11 (filters and tuned amplifiers)
Do 11.1, 11.4, 11.5, 11.11. refer notes.
This chapter can be left to be covered at end of syllabus if found

Chapter 12 (Signal generators and waveform shaping circuits)
Leave 12.8

Power amplifiers: Read Boylestad for class A and B, class C and D from

Electronic Devices and Circuit theory 10th edition
By Robert L. Boylestad

Computer analysis and practical application topics are not important for
conventional exam.

Chapter 1: Semiconductor diodes
leave 1.12, 1.14

Chapter 2: Diode Applications

Chapter 3: Bipolar Junction Transistors
leave 3.9, 3.10, 3.10, 3.11, 3.13

Chapter 4: DC Biasing-BJTs

Chapter 5: BJT AC analysis
Leave AC analysis of Darlington circuit and feedback pair.
Complicated derivations can be ignored. Focus on approximate analysis
more. Don’t try to remember formula. Just grasp analysis and problem

Chapter 6: Field Effect Transistors
leave 6.5

Chapter 7: FET biasing
leave 7.12, 7.14

Chapter 8: FET Amplifiers
Complicated derivations can be ignored. Focus on approximate analysis
more. Don’t try to remember formula. Just grasp analysis and problem

Chapter 9: BJT and JFET frequency response

Chapter 10: Operational Amplifiers
Leave 10.3

Chapter 11: Op-Amp applications

Chapter 12: Power Amplifiers
Very well explained in this book.

Chapter 14: Feedback and oscillator circuits

Chapter 15: Power Supplies

Chapter 16 and 17 can be left to be covered at end of preparation. Not
so important from here. Tunnel diode, SCR should be done from

Note : Theory portion for diodes, BJT, OP-Amp and oscillators should be
done from Sedra. Do only problems from Boylestad if you don’t have

Solid State Electronic Devices 6th edition
By Ben G. Streetman

Chapter1: Crystal properties and growth of semiconductor
Do 1.3

Chapter 2: Atoms and electrons
Leave this chapter

Chapter 3:Energy bands and charge carriers in semiconductors
No need to remember quantum stuff (3.1.2, 3.1.5,3.2.2)

Chapter 4: Excess carriers in semiconductors
Do 4.1, 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.4.1-4

Chapter 5: Junctions
Do 5.1, 5.2
In 5.3 do upto pg. 188 and eg. 5.4, avoid quasi Fermi level discussion
Do 5.4.1-2 upto pg 198, 5.4.4, 5.5.4-5, 5.7.1-3

Chapter 6: Field-Effect Transistors
Do 6.2.1-2, 6.3.1-2, 6.4.1-4, fig 6.21 and first para on pg. 288, 6.5.6,

Chapter 7: Bipolar Junction Transistors
Do 7.1, 7.2, do Ebers-Moll model from Millman Grabel/halkias book,
Chapter 8: Optoelectronic Devices
Do 8.1.1-3, 8.2, 8.3. Refer john M. Senior for LED and photodiode.

Chapter 9: Integrated Circuits
Do 9.3.1 upto page 449 third para. , pg. 462 second para, 9.4
9.5.2 for GATE

Chapter 10: High-Frequency and High-Power Devices
Do all sections thoroughly.

Principles of electromagnetics 4 th edition by
Matthew N.O. Sadiku

All chapters except chapter 13 are to be done. Only remember those
derivations which have been asked previously. For some topics

Chapter 2: Vector calculus
Don’t try to remember curl and divergence formula for all three
coordinate systems. See William hyat appendix for general method to
calculate curl and divergence. Or refer class notes.

Digital Design 4th edition by M. Morris Mano
Leave Computer design topics
Chapter 1: Digital Systems and Binary Numbers

Chapter 2: Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates

Chapter 3: Gate-Level Minimization
Leave 3.10
Chapter 4: Combinational Logic

Chapter 5: Synchronous Sequential Logic
Leave 5.6
Chapter 6: Registers and Counters
Leave pg 272-281

Chapter 7: Memory and programmable Logic
Leave 7.8, (questions from 7.6, 7.7 not asked )

Chapter 10: Digital Integrated Circuits

Note: for ADC, DAC refer Digital Systems Principles and Applications
(Pearson Publication)by R.J. Tocci /R.P. Jain/ any Indian author.

Automatic Control Systems 8 th edition by
Benjamin C kuo

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Mathematical Foundation
Do 2.5, rest can be skipped if signals and systems already done.

Chapter 3: Block diagrams and signal flow graphs

Chapter 4: Modeling of physical systems
Questions are rarely asked. Not so important

Chapter 5: State variable analysis
Do upto 5.7.2, canonical form representation and decomposition of
transfer functions not asked frequently, understand observability and
controllability concepts. Refer any Indian author book for this chapter if
unable to grasp anything from here.

Chapter 6: Stability of linear control systems

Chapter 7: Time domain analysis of control
Leave 7.7, 7.10

Chapter 8: Root-Locus technique
Leave 8.5

Chapter 9: Frequency domain analysis
Leave 9.15,16

Chapter 10: Design of Control Systems
Do 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7
Leave examples in above section. Just remember circuit diagrams,
formula and effect of each on steady state and transient response.
See previous years question or any Indian author book for practice.

Engineering circuit analysis 7 th
edition by W H Hayt
Try unsolved problems also. For more problems refer Alexander Sadiku.

Chapter 2: Basic components and electric circuits

Chapter 3: Voltage and current laws
Chapter 4: Basic nodal and mesh analysis

Chapter5: Network Topology
Also refer K.M. Soni book for this chapter.

Chapter 6: Network theorems and useful circuit analysis techniques

Chapter 7: Capacitors and inductors

Chapter 8: Basic RL and RC circuits

Chapter 15: Circuit analysis in s domain

Chapter 9: The RLC circuit
Use Laplace as alternative if differential equation method is difficult.

Chapter 10: Sinusoidal steady-state analysis

Chapter 11: AC circuit power analysis

Chapter 13: Magnetically coupled circuits

Chapter 14: Complex frequency and the laplace transform
Leave this chapter if already covered in signals and system

Chapter 16: Frequency response
leave 16.5, 16.6, refer class notes /any Indian author

Chapter 17: Two port networks

Chapter 18: Fourier circuit analysis
Leave this chapter if done in signals and systems. Do solved examples
For network synthesis Refer Van Valkenburg

Signals and Systems 2 nd
edition by H P HSU
(Schaum’s outlines)
Must do all solved examples from this book and Oppenheim.
Remember all formulas given in Appendix B and Appendix F.
Do the basic problems of Oppenheim after completing this book for
more practice.
Nowadays signal processing concepts like discrete filters etc are also
asked. Refer Schaum/Oppenheim DSP book/ your B.Tech notes for that.

Chapter 1: Signals and System

Chapter 2: Linear time invariant systems
Refer Oppenheim for differential equation solutions and eigen value

Chapter 3: Laplace transform and continuous time LTI system

Chapter4 : Sampling
Refer Oppenheim also

Chapter 5: The Z transform and discrete time LTI systems

Chapter 6: Fourier analysis of continuous time signals and systems

Chapter 7: Fourier analysis of discrete time signals and systems

Chapter 8: State space analysis

Chapter 9: Random variables and processes
Better do it after reading Communication systems text book.

Communication Systems 4 th
edition by Simon

Background and preview

Chapter 1: Random Processes
Leave 1.13,1.14

Chapter 2: Continuous-Wave modulation
For FM generation and demodulation refer any other book like
Taub Schilling /Singh & Sapre/B.P. Lathi
Leave 2.8
In 2.13 Leave FM threshold effect analysis and FM Threshold reduction
Try unsolved problems 1,4,6,9,10,11,16,21,22,27,28,29,31,33,34,37.

Chapter 3: Pulse modulation
In 3.2 do upto eq 3.33 pg.197.
Leave 3.13, 3.15, 3.16
Try problems 3, 18,27.

Note: for digital communication refer Schaum’s outlines if you find this
book difficult. Tough questions from Digital comm. are rarely asked in
ESE, but more important for GATE.

Chapter 4: Baseband pulse transmission
Leave 4.6,4.7,4.8( do it for interview),4.9,4.10
Read eye pattern from B.P. lathi

Chapter 5: Signal space analysis
Do 5.1,5.2

Chapter 6: Passband data transmission
Do 6.1, 6.2, 6.3(Leave offset QPSK, π/4 shifted QPSK), 6.4(upto eg. 6.3),
6.9, 6.10

Chapter 7: Spread spectrum Modulation
Do 7.1, 7.2(upto pg. 482), 7.3, 7.7(only half of pg. 500)

Chapter 8: Multiuser Radio communication
Do upto 8.4

Chapter 9: Fundamental limits in Information theory
Do 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4(only Huffman coding),9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.9, 9.10

Chapter 10: Error control coding
Just do (minimum distance considerations) hamming code on pg 637

Analog and Digital Communication (Schaum’s outlines)3rd
edition by HWEI P HSU

Must to do all solved problems of relevant chapters. Some important
results and derivations are there in them.

Chapter 1: Signals and Spectra
Note sinc function on pg. 1.7-8, skip this chapter if already completed
signals and system
Chapter 2: Signal Transmission and filtering

Chapter 3: Amplitude modulation

Chapter 4: Angle modulation

Chapter 5: Pulse Modulation System
Note eg. 5.8

Chapter 6: Probability and Random Variables

Chapter 7: Random Process
Leave 7.6A i.e. Gaussian random processs

Chapter 8: Noise
More relevant for GATE than ESE

Chapter 9: Noise in Analog Communication Systems
More relevant for GATE than ESE

Chapter 10: Digital Modulation and Demodulation
All derivations in theory portion are important.

Chapter 11: Information theory and source coding

Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Application with 8085 5th
edition by Ramesh Gaonkar
Appendix F is very important. Notice the flags, M-cycles and T-states on
pg. 780-783.
Attempt at least those unsolved problem whose answers are given in
Appendix G.

Chapter 1: Microprocessors, microcomputers and Assembly language

Chapter 2: Introduction to 8085 assembly language programming

Chapter 3: Microprocessor Architecture and Microcomputer Systems

Chapter 4: 8085 Microprocessor Architecture and Memory interfacing

Chapter 6: Introduction to 8085 Instructions

Chapter 7: Programming techniques with Additional Instructions

Chapter 8: Counters and Time Delays

Chapter 9: Stacks and Subroutines

Chapter 10: Code conversion, BCD Arithmetic, and 16-bit Data
Do 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9

Chapter 12: Interrupts

Read some peripherals such as 8155(14.2), 8259(15.5),8237(15.6) and
those asked in previous years exam questions.

Computer System Architecture 3rd
edition by M. Morris Mano

Read 8.8 RISC,CISC, pipelining on Pg. 284-287
Read Chapter 12

1. For Instrumentation and measurement refer class notes and A.K.
2. For material science refer class notes and S.P. Seth, A.J. Dekker for
superconductivity etc.
3. For Antenna basics do first 2 chapters of C.A. Balanis book.
4. For more practice on Control systems refer B.S. Manke/ any other
Indian author.
5. For fibre optic communication and optoelectronics refer John M.
6. For microwave (not in syllabus now) refer Samuel Y. Liao.
7. For satellite comm. I don’t know a good source.{I referred Satellite
networking by Zhili Sun (first 2 chapters leaving maths), Chapter 4
Radio wave propagation of Satellite Communications by Dennis
Roddy}. For Cellular networks and LOS budget calculation refer
Wireless Communication by Rappaport.
8. For programming refer ANSI C by E. Balaguruswamy./ youtube .
9. For TCP/IP and OSI model refer chapter 2 Of CCNA-ICND1 (free
pdf available on internet)/ Forouzan.
10. Advanced Electronics topics , Computer Architecture and
Basic Electrical Engineering–I don’t know (someone please
suggest!). However, for basic electrical engineering refer Ashfaq
Hussain. For embedded systems refer Mazidi book(Pearson
publication). For DSP refer Schaum’s outlines for filter design first.
If doesn’t help then Oppenheim Book (Discrete time signal

OBC Creamy Layer Criteria

        It is observed in many cases that people are not aware of all the criteria related to the OBC Creamy layer categorization. Many times candidates apply to competitive examinations with the OBC non-Creamy layer category but at the time of document verification, they have to face problems and in some cases their candidature is at stake of cancellation. For clarity of OBC creamy layer, I am broadly discussing three cases below:

1) If your Father/Mother is working in Central Government Department:

S. No. Condition Category
1 If Father & Mother both are appointed as Group-A Officer OBC Creamy Layer
2 If Father & Mother both are appointed as Group-B Officer OBC Creamy Layer
3 If either Father or Mother is appointed as Group-A Officer OBC Creamy Layer
4 If Father & Mother both appointed as other than Group-A or B Officer and both Promoted as Group-A or Group-B officer before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer
5 If Father & Mother both appointed as other than Group-A or B Officer and both Promoted as Group-B officer or any one promoted to Group-A before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer
6 If either Father or Mother is appointed as other than Group-A and Promoted to Group-A officer before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer

2) If your Father/Mother is working in State Government Department:

S. No. Condition Category
1 If Father & Mother both are appointed as Group-B Officer OBC Creamy Layer
2 If Father & Mother both appointed as other than Group-B Officer and both Promoted as Group-A officer before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer
3 If Father & Mother both appointed as other than Group-B Officer and both Promoted as Group-B officer or any one promoted to Group-A before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer
4 If either Father or Mother is appointed as other than Group-B and Promoted to Group-A officer before age of 40 years OBC Creamy Layer

3) If your Father/Mother is working in other Semi-Government/Autonomous Departments (PSU, Banks, Insurance Organizations, Universities etc.)

The criteria prescribed for determining creamy layer status of sons and daughters of persons in Government service mutatis mutandis applies to the sons and daughters of persons holding equivalent or comparable posts in PSUs, Banks, Insurance Organizations, Universities etc. and holding equivalent or comparable posts and positions under private employment. The creamy layer status of the sons and daughters of employees of organizations where evaluation of the posts on equivalent or comparable basis has not been made is determined on the basis of ‘Income/Wealth Test’ given in the Schedule. The Income/Wealth Test prescribes that the sons and daughters of persons having gross income of Rs. 6.0 lakh or above or possessing wealth above the exemption limit as prescribed in the Wealth Tax Act for a period of three consecutive years would be treated to fall in creamy layer.


Income of the parents from salaries and from the other sources [other than salaries and agricultural land] is determined separately. If either the income of the parents from the salaries or the income of the parents from other sources [other than salaries and agricultural land] exceeds the limit of Rs. 6.0 lakh per annum for a period of three consecutive years, the sons and daughters of such persons shall be treated to fall in creamy layer. But the sons and daughters of parents whose income from salaries is less than Rs. 6.0 lakh per annum and income from other sources is also less than Rs. 6.0 lakh per annum will not be treated as falling in creamy layer even if the sum of the income from salaries and the income from the other sources is more than Rs. 6.0 lakh per annum for a period of three consecutive years. It may be noted that income from agricultural land is not taken into account while applying the Test.

For detailed information and all the letters, circulars issued by Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions regarding the OBC Creamy/Non-creamy layer, please visit the link given below:

Link for proforma to be filled & submitted by OBC candidates at the time of documents verification for exam conducted by UPSC:

Link for downloading the updated OBC Proforma:

Problems of Working in Railways

Hello Everyone,
I found a letter where an IRSE officer describes the deteriorating condition of working in railways. My intention has been to put everything available with me on the table.  This article is all about the problems faced by young officers of railways in the filed. This not the whole picture, it primarily represents one department working in open line. You shouldn’t make your judgement just on the basis of one or two articles. Every jobs has its pros and cons. Today it’s the turn of presenting cons before you, after all world is not the bed of roses.


Respected Sir,

This letter is an effort to save Indian Railways from the misdirected policies and practices that have crept into daily operations of Railways. This is not an effort to malign the much revered institution in any way, but to highlight the shortcomings and the plight of faceless field staff, who are putting their blood into the system. Nor is it an attempt to run away from responsibilities. We are a dedicated and concerned lot who takes pride in being part of the organisation and in what we do.

We will be focussing only on the spine of Indian Railways, i.e. Engineering Department, which is suffering the most amongst all the departments. That doesn’t mean other departments enjoy comfortable working as they too suffer different type of disabilities. But Engineering being one of the oldest departments and being the custodian of huge Indian Railways assets deserves to be heard first and foremost.

Mostly the problems concern with the field level because it is the level where most of the Engineering Department’s activities are performed. But first, we want you to please note a few details about three main actors involved at the field level, viz, the Track Maintainer, the PWI, and the ADEN.

Track Maintainer (Trackman)

He goes about performing his duty starting his day at around 06:00. At times he travels 10-15 Km. to get to his place of work, to and fro. He returns by 07:00 – 08:00 in the evening. Still he’s a proud worker and loves what he does.

At Group D level, a trackman does far more hard labour than any other employee among all departments. There have been many cases where a trackman has prevented some serious accidents because he is the one who is out there on track in extreme weather conditions to ensure safe running of trains but is not paid even a single extra penny for that. For him overtime allowance exists only on paper, if at all. In the current scenario when trains are running at over 120 Kmph, the job of trackmen has become more important as well as risky. Cases of trackmen being run over by train or getting severely injured are very common.

Senior Section Engineer – Pway (PWI)

He wakes up latest by 06:00 in the morning, prepare distribution of work for about 200 Trackmen under him by 07:30, goes on with his daily work by 08:00, work till 7, 8 sometimes 11:00 in the night. This, he has to do 7 days a week, 365 days of a year, 35 years of his service. He is directly responsible for safety of track as well any activity that happens in his section. In the age of mechanisation when workforce is getting reduced on one hand and not able to provide adequate machineries and equipment on the other, PWI is asked to increase efficiency of work with the same set of old-age and condemned equipment and scarce Pway material. His main strength is the trackman who is expected to do serious physical labour. Making his task difficult are the trackmen of today, with graduate and post graduate qualifications, having serious problem with physical labour.

He hardly gets (or takes) any leave. He has to work in night soil and muck dropped all over the places.  He’s the coordinator of all field activities concerning all the other departments. He also has to share his staff with other departments for their associated work; which he does without any qualms. A PWI represents all other field staff of railways. He has to work with multiple bosses, contractors, gang staff, other departments, state authorities, towards fulfilling his duty.


The post of ADEN is considered to be the most charismatic post in Indian railways. Once, with staff under him numbering over 1000, what cannot be achieved if he decides? He is the creator of huge infrastructure of railways which catches anybody’s imagination. Big vintage bungalow adds to his aura. He is the leader of his team, consisting PWI’s, IOW’s and trackmen, and the sole authority on field for what is to be and not to be. An ADEN is the flag bearer of his sub-division. Other departments and HQ’s expect a lot from him. He is the man to go in case of urgency/ emergency.

Today’s state is as follows. With over 30-40% vacancies, most of the specialised posts being surrendered, decaying works cadre and staff, office staff remaining a third of what it was, contractor agencies getting unduly favoured, with punitive powers gone, with the traffic and no. of activities multiplied manifolds, the ADEN has become a mere shadow of his prime. Combined with detached attitude from the HQ it is becoming increasingly difficult to carry out duties. With increased expectations, same old methods and punishment oriented approach is expected to work, not realising times have changed since they were at the field and needing different strategies. It is not our intention to revive the institution of ADEN as it was but to highlight the poor conditions which will definitely lead to disaster if timely action is not taken.


With this background we would now like to raise issues being faced by railways needing urgent attention.

  1. Detached HQ

It is for your information Sir, being posted as an ADEN is the most challenging time an IRSE has to face. Unfortunately as officers go higher up they forget how work used to be carried out when they were ADEN. Please compare following facts with 15 years ago. The number of staff, the variety of staff, the number of office supervisors and draughtsman, the quantum of traffic, the frequency of trains, the number of activities one had to deal at a time, the nature of workforce, the demand from the system and the kind of discipline that existed. All of it has changed, and changed drastically. Earlier there was higher tolerance for accidents and reporting was very less. Now even a minor incident travels at lightning speed to every nook and corner of the country. Orders conveying strong message are issued in minutes. Today it is said that we have stronger track structure and you don’t need men as you now have machines. But it is a false assumption. Agreed that Track structure has improved, but so has the traffic which has become more than thrice. So has the speed. So has the number of trains. There is acute scarcity of material and machines, and blocks/ caution-orders for maintenance not available, compromising safety.

Please look into how many machines are there, zone wise. Are they sufficient to meet maintenance requirements of track as per schedule? Is sufficient/proper block time is given for their working? Are proper speed restrictions being imposed as per manual? Answers would be unsatisfactory, missing the theory by miles! Day by day the responsibility for owing up to failures is being shifted upwards. ‘Hang the ADEN, which will give a strong message’. Dear Sir, what kind of a system is this which is more interested in sending a message rather than solving the problem. The unfortunate ground reality is that it will not bring an iota of change to the field staff, as they are already overburdened to have time to fear. But yes it does send a message to that field staff, that one does not have any support from the HQ. You are on your own. It’s better to not do the work, or do it on paper and relax, because there’s an equal cost to doing or not doing the work.

As for the ADEN, he already has a written schedule of inspection of 45 days which he has to complete in 30 days. Add to it the multifarious activities, shrinking staff, unruly staff and supervisors, increasing interference from Unions in daily working, absence of works cadre, no authority to punish for wrongdoing, no authority to take important decisions which has been usurped by HQ’s, no assistance in office work, non-cooperative departments in a maddening race to prove their superiority over others, burden of reporting to anybody and everybody senior to you that too instantly, ever-increasing protocol duties towards seniors with whom he and his team has to accompany without a choice. In addition he has to liaison with state authorities, do variety of Surveys, prepare designs/drawings, and send reports/data in a variety of formats. In such a scenario how can one have a family life or a holiday or have time for himself?

ADEN has to do his night inspections either as part of schedule or as part of surprise inspection. Such inspections are done after working for a full day. After the night inspection if he sleeps at 05:00 in the morning there is no time for rest as the phone calls invariably start by 07:00 Hrs. and a full day starts again. Despite the poor state of affairs, focus is put more on how things look rather than how efficiently trains are run. A misplaced priority please.

  1. Scarcity of Funds

Railways need money. Money to build infrastructure, build capabilities, to provide quality services, to provide variety of services, to build up workforce, to maintain assets, etc. With great past record Railways is now focussing on quality. We are making our stations and coaches cleaner and services better. But we are forgetting the hands that are bringing these changes on field. They are still living in dilapidated houses and surroundings, with rudimentary water and electricity supplies. Spending on quarters and facilities is never justified. How are we supposed to bring change on ground without changing the mentality of staff and improving their living conditions?

Dr. Anil Kakodkar headed High Level Safety Review Committee noted in its report that the ‘present environment on Indian Railways reveals a grim picture of inadequate performance’ largely due to poor infrastructure and resources, and lack of empowerment at the functional level. It has given several recommendations having no financial implications to empower the functional levels and to simplify processes and procedures to deal with this negative feature. IR has to be energized with a new type of work culture, it further stated.


  1. Misdirected Policies

Through this letter we want to help explore where the bloodline of India is heading. What is the purpose of this service? Is it social service? Is it profit making? Is it capacity building? Be an efficient and punctual mode of transport? Or for building infrastructure? Surely it is all of the above. But what are our priorities? Do we want to earn more disregarding the safety of passengers? Priorities must be decided at your level sir. At ground level it is now understood that Punctuality is inviolable, even more than Safety. We are literally forced to beg in front of Operating staff and Controllers to let us do our job. We are forced to impose emergencies due to things not getting addressed by usual channels, and rectifying the same within shortest time and unusual hours.

Or is it to push ground staffs to the extent that they get all the poor lifestyle diseases or even die because of them? Sir, ask any railway doctor, he will tell you railway employees overburden. Every second person is having sugar or BP or both. This is the nature of job they have to perform, without questioning the authority. Many employees have actually died early of lifestyle diseases, especially those who have spent the bulk of their carrier on field.

Railways is a discipline oriented organisation. In practical terms abuses are hurled every minute on the field. It is impossible to do job without abuses and charge sheets, bringing us to point out misdirected policy in recruitment.

The workforce is overqualified for the job. With respect to the current working, a Trackman should have 10th pass as the maximum qualification. Today we have M.Com’s, MCA’s, MBA’s, etc. as the new generation of Trackman. Many of them are here only because they need a job, not because they like the nature of job. It is hard to expect them to work in muck, and do manual labour. And of what use is the education which is used for making excuses for not doing work or to reply back to the supervisors. We’re sorry to say this Sir, but this policy is burdening the system with useless hands.

Along with the overqualified staff the induction of female workers for trackman job is difficult to realise on the field as it requires hard manual labour. Most of the times they either can’t do such work or pressure is put on open line supervisors to give them office jobs. Holding nothing against female workforce, the induction of women as trackman needs to be reviewed.

Third is the issue of vacancies. We have to wait for vacancy to go up to 30-40%, which when filled up never reaches 100%. Dear Sir, we are performing a job of safety. We can’t afford to have any vacancy. Vacancy is infringing with safety, and the field staff had to bear the additional burden of work for years. This is valid especially after the downsizing of the organisation and unreasonable burden put by successive Pay Commissions and Finance. A good number of overqualified new recruitees leave the organisation, or go to other departments, or remain in place with distaste for the job.

Fourth, due to downsizing various specialised and critical posts vanished from the organisation. Ideally those functions should also be eliminated. Not surprisingly, it did not happen. Artisan staff is almost gone. Onus lies with the Supervisors to train available staff for the artisans job, arrange tools for them, and carry out all the functions as smoothly as it was ever used to be. Works cadre is almost destroyed, as with shortage of staff, poor recruitment of supervisors, apathy from HQ and a variety of poor contractors, contributing to its obsolescence. Finance wing being more interested in surrendering posts every year without logic, not realising the importance of a Valveman or Safaiwala in the system.

Fifth is the policy of easy promotions for Supervisors. Earlier it took decades for Supervisors to reach SSE level. By putting this fact we want to convey that SSE’s in Indian Railways are equipped with immense experience and act as the storehouse of institutional memory. The whole system is pretty much dependent on this level. But now anybody and everybody is getting promoted to the SSE level, without possessing requisite technical knowledge. The problem is going to become worse in the coming years when good quality supervisors will be hard to find. It is one thing to give financial upgradation, but totally different to expect to work like an experienced supervisor. The fact is usually overlooked in practise and the burden is borne by others.

Sixth, pampering Unions and not following up. Unions are becoming dominating at field level, especially on Personnel matters. It is not conducive for smooth running of administration as the impact is borne by field staff. You also loose the power to enforce discipline. They have done a good job in bringing a once a week assured rest order for supervisors. Such a rest should be there for In-charge and ADEN too. A pressure job like this needs timely rest.

Seventh, with time new lines are opened, new assets created, new activities started. As if there was surplus staff available at field, they are invariably diverted or assigned additional duties without diluting current responsibilities. Sir, please acknowledge that Railways is not just like any other Govt. establishment where field staff can be diverted or responsibilities can be diluted without much loss to administration’s working. Field staff here is associated with Safety, and these staffs work day and night, with concentration and hard labour. The cost of diluting current responsibilities is very high, which can prove to be disastrous. With Zero Accident Mission in place, patrolling is now usually done throughout the year as each season has a critical effect on track behaviour. Patrolling by current staff is having the most prominent effect on the maintenance of track as the staff is not available for the same during times of patrolling.

Eight, the categorisation of all Gang staff into Track Maintainer I, II, III, IV and lack of clarity on practical issues has led to disruption in the control over gang units. Due to Restructuring, TM automatically getting promoted to higher grade pay and hence refusing to take on the responsibility of Mate. Otherwise they give refusal to higher grade pay to take benefit of LARSGESS scheme. Either way proper Mate cannot be assigned to a unit and hence there is the problem of control. Also, employees coming via LARSGESS got the job without facing any competition; hence don’t know the value of their job or many times lack sincerity.

  1. Scarcity of Material

It flows directly from scarcity of funds. At times, conditions become so bad that we have to compromise safety. At many places you would find material have deteriorated to such an extent resulting in poor riding quality and requiring replacement soon. Yet HQ would frown upon as if it is asked for personal reasons. They mind it very much if you ask for it in writing, and further repercussions. It is hard to put speed restrictions or stop traffic. All this can be avoided if we have sufficient stock of materials. Timely replacement of assets is vital to ensure safety of trains. Most of the time replacement is sanctioned after the asset has crossed its life as per code, when a higher official notices it and ask for the replacement. In the meanwhile if something happens, the onus lies on field staff for not imposing speed restriction or stopping traffic.

  1. Scarcity of Labour

Shortage of departmental labour is dealt above. It is said that now there are numerous agencies available at field level. Practically, more often than not it is the same agency who has taken multiple contracts in a Division/Zone. And it is beyond their capacity to increase labour, being the costliest item in any work. Plus there are not many ways to force an agency to do exactly as it is required. High level of supervision is required to ensure quality. One can’t go on terminating private players as there are not many. It is a technical field and requires huge capital backing. Even if this point is disregarded, agencies don’t want to go beyond stations or work at odd hours. And thus we can’t rely on them in case of emergencies. For this reason we require a strong and dedicated departmental workforce, and hence is the demand.

  1. Scarcity of Machines

Point already elaborated earlier. It can only be addressed if problem of funding is dealt with. It is not possible to do what is required with current stock and condition. Requirement wise analysis needs to be done and procurement to be done at the earliest.

  1. Situation of Offices

The on-field offices of railway employees are in shambles. Money demanded for necessary spending is rejected-not-justified. Daily activities are asked to be carried out with meagre imprest. The number of Office Supervisors has reduced a lot. Experienced one’s are retiring, new one’s are either not interested or not able to do it all in the world of ever increasing reporting and compliances, and the quantum of work. Old ones are unable to cope with new information age of computers and smartphones. HQs don’t pay heed and the burden of reporting is borne by the field offices and officers like ADEN, ADSTE, ADEE, etc.

  1. Abusive Environment

Unfortunately Railways has become an organisation where if you don’t look strong you are labelled ineffective. Concepts like team building, synergy, counselling and appreciation just don’t exist. It might have been possible in the past when the Trackmen were not too much qualified and discipline was held sacrosanct, and line of command used to work perfectly. Not in today’s time, when everyone is well learned, and has options beyond a meagre paying job. They are more concerned about their rights rather than duties. It’s not bad to have learned people in your workforce, or to demand rights, but in this case it is to be analysed if it is okay to have it, and what needs to be done in the changed context. Otherwise it creates bad environment at the field level. The issue here is making policies according to the changed context.

  1. Problem of Blocks. Punctuality over Safety.

Sir, as stated earlier also we face a lot of problems in getting blocks for maintenance operations. Operating Department holds the key to giving blocks. Mostly Pway staff has to chase it as if it’s his personal work. Sometimes it becomes a matter of weeks till he get a block, ‘managing’ safety at his level. Also every time he would be there with his staff, waiting at the site till the time there is hope of getting the block. What a terrible waste of resources when you have so little! Sir, why haven’t we developed a transparent mechanism where a representative from Pway side can book a block and he will be told beforehand the day when the block is expected. And the block is given no matter how on the same day, as it is a matter of safety. Same should also happen when there is an emergency. It’s left to your good judgement sir, what is more important to us, Revenue/Punctuality or Safety. To maintain the assets in good condition timely blocks are very important, no matter what. Engineering staff is forced to compromise on safety on regular basis as blocks and caution orders are not been given easily. With ever increasing traffic, pressure on pway assets is on the rise which further accelerates the wear and tear, and requires frequent attention. If existing assets are not given timely attention they have to be replaced at a much faster pace, again putting a burden on railways financial resources.  Operating department gives the block and caution orders whenever it is convenient. Safety has to be given precedence otherwise results may be catastrophic.

  1. Workload

An ADEN is overall in charge of the subdivision. He has to take care of Pway as well as Works. He has huge workload. He has to conduct daily inspection of track, inspection of bridges and yards, monthly day and night footplates, other night inspections, filling inspections in TMS, test check of various contractual work under his jurisdiction, ensuring quality of the work being done, check every bill, manage blocks, attend blocks, ensure compliances, attend HQ meetings, chase material procurement, manage contracts and labour, liaison with state authorities, accompany higher officials on their inspection, looking after the passenger amenities, dealing with complaints of unions and staff, looking after the welfare of the staff, their allowances, their medical etc. Apart from all these he has to prepare reports, proposals, sign hundreds of papers etc. It is becoming increasingly difficult to cope up with such work pressure. Leaves are denied for some reason or the other. Continuously working under such pressure takes a toll on mind as well as body. Familial and other responsibilities becomes secondary resulting in tensions across all dimensions of life.

  1. Multifarious Activities

Sir, activities like tree plantation, skill upgradation, holding seminars/camps, cleanliness drives, etc, are noble and essential activities. We want to be a part of all such initiatives, but despite having best of intentions we don’t get extra funds, staff, time and resources to carry out the same. Our core duty is to run trains safely, which requires immense concentration and inputs from staff and officers. Such activities asking for involvement from higher officials actually puts burden on field level only. We are unable to handle so many protocol movements, compliances, and do our job effectively. Again we want to reiterate that Railways, especially at field level, is unlike any other Govt. organisation.




Although we spoke only about the engineering department, but problems of various kinds also exists in other departments as well. For example, Mechanical/Electrical department might use old/dysfunctional parts in locos and coaches or Operating department do not always lock hand operated points due to shortage of staff or send shunting master without proper authority, etc. Some problems are common while others unique. But engineering being the biggest and the most critical department can lead the way towards the desired change.

We hope that the points highlighted above are constructive in nature, and would lead to a change for a better future. Otherwise the environment at field level is becoming demotivating. We are forced to question why we chose this service after getting the best ranks. We were warned that it will be very demanding still we took the job. But with increasing expectations and quantum of work it is becoming increasingly difficult to fulfil the duties effectively.

By addressing the letter to you Sir, we don’t imply that the Railway Board is failing in its duty. There are some issues which may have been overlooked or needs attention as per field requirement. It is a technical organisation and technical persons are the best judge to decide the future course. And a railway man is always an able administrator for the job.

We feel we should have to focus on our core responsibilities, not be swayed by populist demands or cosmetic changes and work more transparently so as to develop faith.



भारत दर्शन : मनाली यात्रा


29 अप्रैल, 2016 दिन शुक्रवार

 सुबह 05:30, टिक-टिक, टिक-टिक

अचानक आँख खुली और इतनी तेज गति से अलार्म को बंद करने के लिए उठा जैसे अगले ही पल में ज्वालामुखी फट जायेगा। अचानक याद आया कि आज तो रोज की भाँति शारीरिक प्रशिक्षण (पीटी) के लिए नहीं जाना है, अनायास ही मन इतना प्रसन्न हुआ जैसे आज तो महानिदेशक पदक ही प्राप्त कर लिया हो । इस शारीरिक प्रशिक्षण (पीटी) के रद्द होने का भी एक कारण था, पूर्व रात्रि में सांस्कृतिक कार्यक्रम का आयोजन हुआ था एवं तत्पश्चात उत्साह से आप्लावित परिवीक्षार्थिओं का DJ कार्यक्रम भी था । मैंने पुनः अपनी शायिका की ओर देखा और ऐसा लगा जैसे वो वर्षों से मेरा इंतज़ार कर रही थी, मैंने भी बिना विलंब किए उसका आमंत्रण स्वीकार किया और हम दोनों कुछ ही क्षणों में एक दूसरे के इतने समीप हो गए, जैसे वियोग में बैठे प्रेमी को अचानक से उसकी प्रेयसी मिल गई हो ।

29 अप्रैल, 2016 दिन शुक्रवार

 सुबह 07:55

कुछ कंपन सा महसूस हुया, आँख खुली तो देखा मेरा कक्ष साथी (ROOM-MATE) मुझे जगा रहा था, मैं HIGH SPEED TRAIN (द्रुत गति रेलगाड़ी) की गति से उठा और ऐसा लगा मानो आज मेरे उदर को भारतीय रेल राष्ट्रीय अकादमी का पौष्टिक एवं स्वस्थ नाश्ता नसीब नहीं होगा । मैंने जल्दी-जल्दी में सम्पूर्ण दैनिक क्रियाएँ सम्पन्न करने की कोशिश की किन्तु प्रतिदिन की भाँति पूर्ण सफलता नहीं मिली और मैं आंशिक सफलता के साथ तुरंत मेस की तरफ इस उम्मीद से भागा कि थोड़े से भोज्य पदार्थ से अपनी क्षुधा को शांत करूंगा लेकिन प्रतिदिन की तरह आज भी पंक्ति इतनी लंबी थी कि मैंने आँखों से ही वहाँ बैठे व्यक्तिओं की थाली का दर्शन कर अपनी क्षुधा को शांत करने का निष्फल प्रयास किया, लेकिन शायद मेरे उदर को यह तरीका स्वीकार न था । अत: मैंने भी पंक्ति में खड़े होकर अपनी बारी की प्रतीक्षा की और उपलब्ध संसाधनों को कम से कम समय में ग्रहण करने का प्रयास किया ।

अब मैं कक्षा के अंदर प्रवेश कर चुका था और मैंने अपने बैठने की जगह भी सुनिश्चित कर ली थी, क्योंकि रोज की भाँति मैं अपने निर्धारित स्थान पर ही बैठना पसंद करता था ।

आज सुबह से ही मन बहुत रोमांचित हो रहा था क्योंकि आज शाम से हमारा बहुप्रतीछित भारत दर्शन का शिक्षा दौरा प्रारम्भ होना था और हमें मनाली जाने का अवसर प्राप्त हुआ था । अत: आज के व्याख्यानों में मन न लगना स्वाभाविक था, किन्तु मन को दिलासा देकर किसी तरह प्रथम व्याख्यान (राजभाषा) निंद्रा के आगोष में आये बिना सफलतापूर्वक पूर्ण किया एवं चाय और बिस्कुट का अल्पाहार लेकर दूसरे व्याख्यान के लिए बैठ गए। इस समय तक लोगों में आलस्य का स्थायित्व  आ चुका था, लेकिन इस व्याख्यान में सोना, शेर के मुख से निवाला निकालने जैसा था क्योंकि इस विषय के प्राध्यापक ने आरंभ में ही यह सांकेतिक चेतावनी दे दी थी कि उनके विषय में सफल होने की प्रायिकता लगभग शून्य है एवं उनके विषय में कोई लिखित परीक्षा भी नहीं होगी, केवल मौखिक परीक्षा के आधार पर अंक दिये जाएँगे। लोगों ने अपनी इंद्रियों पर काबू करने का निष्फल प्रयास किया, किन्तु आज का मानव अपने आप को व्हाट्सअप्प (WHATSAPP) जैसे सामाजिक एवं आवश्यक बुराई से कैसे दूर रख सकता है, अत: कुछ दोषियों को चेतावनी देकर छोड दिया गया । किसी तरह यह व्याख्यान समाप्त हुआ और लोगों ने बिना किसी चेतावनी संकेत की परवाह किए मेस में पंक्ति बना ली और दोपहर का भोजन ग्रहण करने के बाद सरदार पटेल सभागृह में एकत्रित होने लगे क्योंकि आज सबको यात्रा भत्ता की अग्रिम राशि मिलनी थी एवं भारत दर्शन के कार्यक्रम की सम्पूर्ण एवं अंतिम जानकारी भी मिलनी थी ।

Sorry, the coach cannot be attached in any train. We have to manage ourselves.” इन शब्दों के साथ वरिष्ठ प्राध्यापक (संघटनात्मक व्यवहार) ने अपना उद्बोधन प्रारम्भ किया । सभी परिवीक्षार्थी इस समाचार से सहम से गए थे क्योंकि सभी को वो दिन याद आने लगे थे, जब बिना कन्फ़र्म टिकट के यात्रा करने पर टीटी द्वारा अनादरित होते थे । किन्तु कुछ समय पश्चात हमें यह बताया गया की सभी के लिए कन्फ़र्म टिकट की व्यवस्था कर दी गयी है, लेकिन समस्या यह है की समूह के 98 सदस्यों को तीन रेलगाड़ियों  से पृथक-पृथक करके भेजा जाएगा । कुछ परिवीक्षार्थी इस समाधान से अत्यंत प्रसन्न हुये किन्तु कुछ के हृदय में ऐसा पहाड़ टूटा जैसे उनके मित्र की किसी अन्य ट्रेन में एक रात्रि की यात्रा से उनके व्यक्तिगत जीवन में कलह पैदा कर देगी । किसी तरह अन्य लोगों ने ऐसे चोली–दामन के साथ वाले मित्रों को ढाढ़स बधाया । हमे ट्रेक्किंग से संबन्धित सभी आवश्यक सामग्री की जानकारी पुनः करायी गयी एवं कम से कम सामान ले जाने की सलाह भी दी गयी । सभी परिवीक्षार्थिओं ने अपना थैला तैयार कर लिया और बचा-कुचा सामान जुटाने में लग गए ।

रात्रि में भोजन के उपरांत हम लोग स्टेशन की ओर रवाना होने के लिए छात्रावास के द्वार पर पँहुचे, बस में आरूढ़ होने का कोई रास्ता नज़र नहीं आ रहा था और हमेशा की तरह बस परिवीक्षार्थिओं से ऐसे आच्छादित थी मानो यह बस किसी सिनेमा हाल की ओर जा रही हो । मेरी बस छूट चुकी थी और मेरे साथ दो अन्य परिवीक्षार्थी भी इस घटना के साक्षी थे । ऐसी अवस्था में हमने बिना समय बर्बाद किए तुरंत “JUGNOO AUTO” को बुलाया और शान से स्टेशन पहुंचे । हम लोग ट्रेन में आरूढ़ हुये और अपनी सीट पर पहुँच कर सामान को व्यवस्थित करके तुरंत ट्रेन में उपस्थित अपने साथियों से मिलने निकल पड़े जैसे हम सुबह की सैर पर निकले हों और पूरी ट्रेन हमारा मोहल्ला हो एवं हम उस मोहल्ले के नेता ।

30 अप्रैल , 2016 दिन शनिवार  

अगले दिन सुबह सभी की रेलगाडियाँ देश की राजधानी दिल्ली पहुँच चुकी थी और हमारी मनाली के लिए बस शाम को 4 बजे यमुना रेस्ट हाउस के सामने से मिलनी थी, अत: लोगों ने अपनी दैनिक क्रियाएँ सम्पन्न करने के पश्चात CONNAUGHT प्लेस का भ्रमण करने में समय का सदुपयोग किया और शाम को 4 बजे यमुना रेस्ट हाउस में उपस्थित हो गए, लेकिन बस का कोई अता-पता नहीं था । हमें आज पुनः आभास हुआ की हमारे यहाँ मानक समय मात्र एक परिकल्पना है जिसका वास्तविक जीवन से कोई संबंध नहीं है और हमारे यहाँ समयानुसार कोई भी घटना होना असंभव है, चाहे वह राजधानी एवं शताब्दी जैसी ट्रेनों का गन्तव्य पर पहुँचना ही क्यूँ न हो । कुछ ही समय में वहाँ NRTMA (Northern Railway Trekking and Mountaineering Association) के प्रतिनिधि आ गए और इस समय का उपयोग हमें NRTMA की टोपी एवं एक छोटा थैला देने में किया गया । अंततोगत्वा दो बसें 17:30 पर निर्धारित स्थान पर आई। समूह के पुनः दो भागों में पृथक होने का समय आ गया था, जहाँ एक ओर चोली – दामन के साथ वाले परिवीक्षार्थिओं को एक रात्रि का बिछड़ना भी स्वीकार्य नहीं था वहीं दूसरी ओर ऐसे व्यक्ति भी थे जो अपनी बस में किसी नारी को नहीं बैठाना चाहते थे । अन्ततः सारे संभव क्रमचय एवं संचय के बाद लोगों ने अपनी अपनी जगह सुनिश्चित की और दोनों बसों ने 6:00 बजे शाम को मनाली के लिए प्रस्थान किया । चलने से पहले ही यह निर्धारित किया गया था कि रात्रि के भोजन के लिए बस को कहाँ रुकवाना है, रात्रि में लगभग 10:20 के आस-पास हम सुंदरनगर में किसी ढ़ाबे पर रुके और शालीनता का परिचय देते हुये 98 लोग कतार लगा चुके थे। स्थान सीमित था, व्यक्ति अधिक थे और कुछ तो सुबह से इस उम्मीद में भूखे थे कि रात्रि में असीमित भोजन से अपनी क्षुधा को शांत करेंगे । खैर किसी तरह सभी ने कुछ न कुछ खा के आगे कि यात्रा की शुरुआत की। रात्रि में दीप विषर्जन का समय भी हो गया था, अत: लोगों ने अपनी-अपनी अर्ध शायिका को आवश्यकतानुसार तिरछा किया और अपने अपने इष्ट देवता को याद करके सो गये ।

01 मई, 2016 दिन रविवार

अचानक से मुझे कुछ कंपन सा महसूस हुया, आँख खुली तो पता चला की मैं जिस बस में यात्रा कर रहा था उसमे कुछ तकनीकी खराबी आ गयी थी, अभी सुबह के 5:00 बजे थे । मुझे बी टेक प्रथम वर्ष में अध्ययन किए गये यांत्रिक अभियांत्रिकी के कुछ सिद्धान्त याद थे और शायद आज उपयुक्त समय भी था, लेकिन मेरे साथ इस देश के यांत्रिक अभियांत्रिकी में स्नातक व्यक्तियों की अग्रिम पंक्ति भी सफर कर रही थी, अत: मैंने किसी भी प्रकार का तकनीकी सुझाव देने से अपने आप को रोक लिया और यात्रा प्रतिनिधि के अग्रिम आदेश की प्रतीक्षा में बैठ गया । हमें आदेश प्राप्त हुआ की हम समाने के एक ढ़ाबे में बैठ जाएँ और दूसरी बस की प्रतीक्षा करें । कुछ ही समय उपरांत हमें दूसरी बस में बैठाया गया और हम पुनः अपने अधूरे स्वप्न को पूर्ण करने की कोशिश में सो गये ।  अभी सुबह के 8:00 बजे थे कि फिर से किसी ने जगा दिया, आँख खुली तो पता चला की हमारी बस मण्डी के किसी होटल के बाहर खड़ी है । अब लोगों की सुबह की दैनिक क्रियाओं का भी समय हो चुका था । कुछ लोगों को शायिका चाय उपलब्ध नहीं हुयी थी तो ऐसे लोगों को दैनिक क्रियाओं में अपेछित  सफलता नहीं मिली किन्तु कुछ लोगों ने जल की उचित मात्रा का सेवन करके दैनिक क्रियाओं में पूर्ण सफलता प्राप्त की। हम लोग जल्दी से आगे के सफर के लिए इस उम्मीद के साथ रवाना हुये की सुबह का नास्ता मनाली के होटल में करेंगे, किन्तु क्या पता था की नास्ते का सारा पैसा सिर्फ आधे लोग ही वसूल कर पाएंगे जो पहले ही मनाली पहुँच चुके  थे और अपने दिन के कार्यक्रम की रूपरेखा को अंतिम रूप दे रहे थे । अब दोपहर के लगभग 12:30 बजे थे और हमारी बस मनाली के प्राइवेट बस स्टैंड पहुँच चुकी थी ।  बस से उतरते ही वहाँ के अल्प तापमान का अनुभव हुआ, कुछ लोगों को सीघ्र भूख लगी थी तो कुछ पवित्र लोग बिना स्नान भोज्य पदार्थ को हाथ भी नहीं लगाना चाहते थे , वहीं कुछ के आभा– मण्डल से प्रतीत हो रहा था की इन्हें सुबह की दैनिक क्रिया में पूर्ण सफलता नहीं मिली है। हम पूर्व निर्धारित होटल में आए और हमें बताया गया की दोपहर का भोजन 01:30 पर मिलेगा । मुझे होटल का ROOM दो IRSEE परिवीक्षार्थिओं के साथ साझा करना था, हम लोग कक्ष में पहुंचे और अपने अपने सामान को यथा स्थान रख दिया । शायद दोनों IRSEE परिवीक्षार्थिओं ने मनाली घूमने की रूपरेखा पहले से ही बना रखी थी, इसलिए दोनों तुरंत COOL DUDE बन गये और अविलंब बाहर चले गये । अब मैं कक्ष में अकेला था , मैं स्नान करके भोजन के लिए निर्धारित स्थान पहुँच गया जहाँ गरमागरम भोजन हमारी राह देख रहा था, मैंने बिना देर किए अपनी थाली में आवश्यकतानुसार भोज्य पदार्थ रखा और जल्दी से अपने उदर की क्षुधा को शांत किया । हम सभी 14:30 पर पूर्व नियोजित स्थान पर एकत्रित हुये जहाँ NRTMA वालों ने हमें पुनः पर्वतारोहण से संबन्धित अतिआवश्यक वस्तुयों के बारे में बताया, जैसे – हाथ में पहनने के दस्ताने, अच्छे जूते, पराबैंगनी किरणों को परावर्तित करने वाला चश्मा , जुराबों के 2-3 सेट , ठंडक से बचने के लिए आवश्यक वस्त्र । हमें इन सभी आवश्यक वस्तुयों को एकत्रित करने के लिए अगले दिन के सुबह 08:00 बजे तक का समय दिया गया । जहाँ कुछ लोग सामान खरीदने के लिए मनाली की माल रोड़ स्थित बाज़ार की तरफ निकल गये वहीं कुछ लोग मनाली के आस –पास की जगह को देखने निकल पड़े । मैं भी बाज़ार से कुछ सामग्री क्रय करके 6:00 बजे तक वापस आ गया  और सो गया । रात्रि का भोजन 8:30 पर मिलना था इसलिए समय से 5 मिनट पहले हम भोजन लेने की पंक्ति में खड़े हो गए । जहाँ एक ओर दोपहर की भाँति स्वादिष्ट एवं लज़ीज़ शाकाहारी भोजन था वहीं दूसरी ओर शाम के भोजन में मांसाहार की भी व्यवस्था थी, कुछ लोग इस मौके और मौसम दोनों का फ़ायदा उठाते हुये अपनी चिर स्थायी भूख को शांत करने में लग गए । भोजन के पश्चात हम लोग अपने अपने कक्ष में आ गए , लेकिन मेरे कक्ष में आवंटित दो लोग अभी भी शायद मनाली की गलियों में कहीं घूम रहे थे और मुझे पता भी नहीं था कि उनके दैनिक कार्यक्रम की क्या रूपरेखा थी ? मैं कपाट की कुंडी लगा ही रहा था कि तभी किसी ने दरवाजा खटखटाया, मैंने कपाट खोले तो सामने वो दोनों खड़े थे और उनके आभा मण्डल को देखकर ऐसा प्रतीत हो रहा था जैसे स्वर्ग का सफ़र पूर्ण करके आए हों । मैंने उनका स्वागत किया और उन्हे अगले दिन के कार्यक्रम की जानकारी दी, कुछ ही देर में उन्होने अपने थैले से नशीला द्रव (वियर)  निकाला और बालकनी में बैठ गए , मैं उनके जवानी के जोश के उफान को शांत नहीं करना चाहता था इसलिए मैंने शायिका पर समय बिताना उचित समझा ।

02  मई, 2016 दिन सोमवार

अभी सुबह के 6:00 बजे थे और शायिका से उठने का मन नहीं कर रहा था, किन्तु किसी तरह अपने अधूरे रात्रि स्वप्न का परित्याग करके उठना पड़ा और सुबह की शायिका-चाय 6:30 पर ग्रहण करने के पश्चात 8 बजे अल्पाहार के लिए निर्धारित स्थान पर पहुँच गये । अल्पाहार के बाद हमें 8:45 पर DHUNDI कैंप के लिए प्रस्थान करना था, अत: सभी अपना-अपना  सामान बाँध कर आगे की यात्रा के लिए कमर कस कर  वाहन का इंतज़ार कर रहे थे इस दौरान कुछ लोगों ने समय का पूर्ण उपयोग करते हुये अपनी अपनी SELFIE को मोबाइल में कैद कर लिया। कुछ समय पश्चात 4 छोटी बसें आयीं और सभी लोगों ने अपना अपना स्थान सुनिश्चित किया और हम आगे की यात्रा जोकि की लगभग 20  किमी के आस-पास थी, के लिए निकल पडे । कुछ ही पलों में हमारे कुछ साथियों ने बस के ध्वनि प्रणाली पर अपना कब्जा करके, मन चाहे नग्मों का सिलसिला शुरू कर दिया और हम मनाली की वादियों में खो से गये । शायद अभी 11:00 बजे थे और हमारी बस DHUNDI कैंप स्थल के समीप पहुँच चुकी थी, और लगभग 1 किमी का पैदल सफर तय करने के बाद हमें DHUNDI कैंप पहुँचना था । यहाँ पर हमें अनावश्यक सामान को यहीं पर रखने की सलाह दी गयी, सभी ने अपने-अपने सामान का कुछ अंश वहीं रख दिया और कुछ समय पश्चात हम आगे की ओर रवाना हुये । करीब 1 घंटे में हम “बकरथच” कैंप पहुँच गए जिसकी समुद्र तल ऊँचाई लगभग 11500 फीट थी, आज के दिन हमें यहीं रुकना था और अगले दिन प्रात:काल व्यास कुंड के लिए प्रस्थान करना था ।  “बकरथच” कैंप पहुँच कर सभी को टेंट एवं स्लीपिंग बैग आवंटित कर दिये गए, किसी टेंट में 3 लोग तो किसी में 6 लोगों ने अपना सामान रखा । कुछ समय पश्चात दोपहर के भोजन का समय हो गया था, इसलिए खाने के लिए पंक्ति का लगना स्वाभाविक था । खाने में सब्जी, दाल, चावल, रोटी सभी कुछ था एवं इस ऊँचाई पर इतने अच्छे और स्वादिष्ट भोजन को ग्रहण करने के बाद लोगों ने सोना पसंद किया, लेकिन कुछ लोग अभी प्रकृति की गोद में बैठकर पल-पल बदलते मौसम का आनंद लेने लगे । अभी दोपहर के करीब 3:30 बजे थे कि एक सीटी की आवाज़ सुनाई दी जो की इशारा कर रही थी कि शाम की चाय मिलने का समय हो गया है । सभी ने पंक्तिबद्ध होकर चाय एवं बिस्कुट ग्रहण किया और तत्पश्चात सभी एक स्थान पर एकत्रित हुये जहाँ सभी को पर्वतारोहण से संबन्धित मूलभूत बातों से अवगत कराया गया एवं कुछ समय बाद ACCLIMATIZATION WALK पर जाने का आदेश दिया गया । इस ACCLIMATISATION WALK का उद्देश्य हमें अगले दिन होने वाली यात्रा के प्रति अनुकूलित करना था । जहाँ बहुत से लोगों ने बड़े ही उत्साह के साथ इस WALK का मज़ा लिया, वहीं कुछ लोगों ने अपने यहाँ आने के निर्णय पर खेद भी व्यक्त किया। इस  ACCLIMATISATION WALK के दौरान हमने लगभग 2.5 किमी की पैदल यात्रा की और शाम को 6:30 बजे तक अपने कैंप स्थल पर आ पहुँचे । कुछ समय पश्चात पुनः सीटी की आवाज़ के साथ लोग सूप लेने के लिए पंक्ति में लग गए । इसी क्रम में रात्रि भोजन का भी कार्यक्रम था, इतनी  ऊँचाई पर विद्युत का कोई साधन नहीं था, अत: जल्दी भोजन ग्रहण करने के पश्चात दीप विसर्जन करना था । सभी ने भोजन ग्रहण किया, लेकिन अब सबसे बड़ी चुनौती थी कि बिना हाथ में जल का स्पर्श किए थाली कैसे धुली जाये ? किसी तरह लोगों ने हिम्मत करके उस ठंडे-ठंडे जल से थाली धुली और अपने अपने टेंट में चले गये । कुछ रात्रिचर साथियों ने ताश के पत्ते खेलकर समय का सदुपयोग भी किया । अब समय था अपने आप को स्लीपिंग बैग के अंदर स्थापित करने का, जो कि अत्यंत कठिन सा प्रतीत हो रहा था लेकिन स्लीपिंग बैग ने मेरे अकेलेपन को सहारा दिया और मैं कुछ ही समय में उससे लिपटकर ऐसे सो गया जैसे बरसों से विछड़े नायक नायिका का मिलन हो गया हो ।

03  मई, 2016 दिन मंगलवार

आज एक अविस्मरणीय ऐतिहासिक पर्वतारोहण यात्रा की शुरूआत होनी थी । जहाँ कुछ लोग सुबह 4:00 बजे से अपनी दैनिक क्रियाओं को सम्पन्न करने के सपने लेकर कैंप से निकल चुके थे वहीं कुछ लोग अभी अपने स्वप्न में ही खोये हुये थे। आखिर 6:30 तक सभी लोग चाय लेने के लिए पंक्ति में लग चुके थे । कुछ लोगों ने अपनी दैनिक क्रियायों को चाय गृहण करने के बाद पूर्ण करने में सफलता पायी, तो कुछ लोगों के उदर में कई अवांछनीय उपापचय क्रियायों ने जन्म ले लिया था जिनसे छुटकारा पाना बहुत कठिन सा प्रतीत हो रहा था । 7:30 पर अल्पाहार ग्रहण करने के पश्चात हम 8:15 पर पर्वतारोहण के लिए निकले, निकलते समय हमें मार्ग के लिए बिस्कुट, चॉकलेट, MANGO FROOTI जैसे खाद्य पदार्थ भी दे दिये गए । सभी लोग ऊर्जा से आप्लावित थे और एक दूसरे का हौसला बढ़ाते हुये एक कतार में लक्ष्य की तरफ बढ़ रहे थे ।  कुछ लोग एक समान गति से चल रहे थे तो किसी की चाल समय के साथ मंद हो रही थी । कुछ लोग मार्ग में मिल रही बर्फ से खेल रहे थे तो कुछ लोग अधिक से अधिक चित्र की चाह में बार बार नयी भाव भंगिमा में नज़र आ रहे थे । आज हमें लगभग 2000 फीट की ऊंचाई तक पहुँचना था जहाँ से व्यास नदी का उद्गम हो रहा था । आज की यात्रा कठिन थी क्योंकि आज हमें अधिकतम पैदल यात्रा बर्फ के ऊपर चलकर पूरी करनी थी । लोगों में उत्साह की कमी नहीं थी, सभी एक पंक्ति में आगे बढ़ रहे थे एवं SELFIE का भूत अभी भी कई लोगों के सर चढ़ के बोल रहा था । लगभग 3 किमी की यात्रा के पश्चात अब हमें एक ऊँचे पर्वत की चोटी पर चढ़ना था, यह अत्यंत कठिन सा प्रतीत हो रहा था किन्तु आत्मविश्वास से परिपूर्ण साथियों के साथ मैं 3-4 अल्पविराम में इस पहाड़ के शीर्ष पर पहुँच गया । अभी भी हमारी मंज़िल लगभग 0.5 किमी दूर थी लेकिन इसके आगे का सफ़र कुछ ज्यादा ही कठिन था क्योंकि अब हिम से पूरी तरह आच्छादित ग्लेशियर हमारे कदमों के नीचे था और 96 व्यक्तियों का समूह धीरे-धीरे आगे बढ़ रहा था । कुछ ही देर में हम अपनी मंज़िल पर पहुँच चुके थे और लोगों ने जल्दी-जल्दी इस पल को अपने कैमरे में कैद किया और इतनी ऊँचाई पर बैठकर मौसम का आनंद लेने लगे । इस समय तक मौसम बहुत खराब हो चुका था और बारिश किसी भी समय हो सकती थी, इसलिए हमें जल्दी से प्रस्थान करने का आदेश प्राप्त हुआ । पहले बने पद चिन्ह अब तक बहुत फिसलन भरे हो चुके थे, उनका अनुशरण करना हानिकारक हो सकता था इसलिए उसके आसपास के क्षेत्र से होते हुये सभी लोग वापस लौटने लगे । कुछ लोग इस समय तक बहुत थक चुके थे और पीड़ा से कराह रहे थे लेकिन उनके पास चलने के अलावा कोई अन्य विकल्प नहीं था । कई लोगों ने पैदल चलने की बजाय बर्फ पर फिसलकर कुछ मार्ग पूरा किया, हालांकि यह सही विकल्प नहीं था क्योंकि पश्च भाग से ऊष्मा का स्थानांतरण उनके स्वास्थ्य के लिए हितकर नहीं था ।  जैसे–जैसे लोग तम्बू के करीब पहुँच रहे थे, मन में आत्म विश्वास बढ़ रहा था और मुख मंडल पर खुशी के भाव भी । पता नहीं किस जगह पर मेरा एक पग गलत तरीके से पड़ा और मेरे एक पैर में कुछ तकनीकी खराबी आ गयी और मैं दर्द से कराह रहा था, मैं अपनी पीड़ा लिए अपने तम्बू की तरफ बढ़ रहा था और 3-4 विराम के पश्चात अपने कैंप में पहुँच गया जहाँ दोपहर का भोजन सभी का इंतज़ार कर रहा था । सभी ने जल्दी-जल्दी भोजन ग्रहण किया और अपने–अपने तम्बुओं में जाके आराम करने लगे । कुछ समय पश्चात बारिश भी प्रारम्भ हो गयी और मेरी आँख कब लग लगी, शायद मैं बहुत थक गया था इसलिए पता भी नहीं चला । टेंट के बाहर सीटी की आवाज सुनायी दी, बाहर निकल कर देखा तो सूर्य देव पहाड़ों के पीछे से उस दिन के अंतिम दर्शन दे रहे थे । हमने SOUP लेने की पंक्ति में अपना स्थान बनाया और हम सूप का आनंद ले ही रहे थे की बारिश भी प्रारम्भ हो गयी । किसी तरह बारिश की ठंडी-ठंडी बूंदों से बचते बचाते हमने रात्रि भोज को अपने उदर में स्थापित किया और तेजी से अपने तंबू में आ गए । अभी शाम के 7:30 बजे थे और नींद न आना स्वाभाविक था, अत: मेरे साथियों ने ताश के पत्ते खेलने का आग्रह किया । मुझे ताश की ABCD ही आती थी, लेकिन आज अपने ज्ञान को बढ़ाने का मौका भी था और समय भी । करीब 2-3 घंटे ताश खेलने के बाद हमने अपने अपने स्लीपिंग बैग में अपने आप को यथासंभव स्थापित किया और पर्वतारोहण की अपनी यात्रा के पलों को याद करते करते कब आँख लग गयी, पता भी नहीं चला ।

04  मई, 2016 दिन बुधवार

आज सूरज कुछ ज्यादा ही चमकीला प्रतीत हो रहा था, हाँ पर उन कुछ लोगों के लिए जो कल व्यास कुंड पर किसी तरह पहुँच कर अपने आप को भाग्यशाली समझ रहे थे, वहीं दूसरी ओर अधिकतर लोगों के लिए यात्रा का यह अंतिम पड़ाव मिला जुला था । आज सुबह उठने की जल्दी नहीं थी क्योंकि DHUNDI कैंप तक का सफर बहुत छोटा था । सब ने सुबह उठकर सारी शंकाओं के निराकरण के पश्चात जलपान किया और यह जानते हुये भी कि अब वापसी का सफर बिना खतरे, बिना हिम और बिना सूरज की पराबैंगनी किरणों वाला है, लोगों ने विभिन्न प्रकार की महंगी क्रीम का लेप करके और आँखों पर काला चश्मा चढ़ा के आगे चलना शुरू किया । कुछ एक स्वाभाविक रूप से कमजोर दिखने या दिखाने वालों के लिए ये पहाड़ों की उतरन भी जटिल प्रतीत हो रही थी । जैसे तैसे सभी लोग नीचे स्थित DHUNDI कैंप पर पहुँच गए । पहुँचते ही वर्षा का आरंभ होना और अगली पारी के मित्रों का मिलना जैसा 1942 के “रिमझिम रिमझिम रुमझुम रुमझुम” का अहसास करा गया और अगली पारी के सदस्यों को यात्रा से जुड़ी बातों का बोध कराया गया  । आगे कैंप पर दिये गए तंबुओ का स्व-आवंटन प्रारंभ हुआ और सबने इसमें तत्परता दिखाते हुये अपनी सुविधानुसार अधिक ऑक्सीजन वाले तम्बू हथियाए । DHUNDI कैंप, समस्त नहीं तो बहुतायत सुविधायों से युक्त एक आधुनिक कैंप था जिसको देखते ही बकरथच कैंप की सारी चुनौतियाँ याद आ जाती थीं । पर अभी जनसमूह का हर्षोल्लास देखने लायक था जिसमें दोपहर के भोजन ने चार चाँद लगा दिये । चार दिनों बाद पर्वत पर ऐसा भोजन जिसमें  अचार एवं सलाद भी हो तो खुशी के आँसू स्वाभाविक थे । भोजन  समाप्त करने के बाद सबने मोबाइल (दूरध्वनी यंत्र) टटोले और सिग्नल की एक खूँटी दिखते ही खुद को 25-26 मित्रों के साथ फीलिंग एक्साइटेड की ख़बर FACEBOOK पर प्रसारित कर दी और अवांछनीय LIKES की राह में बैठ गए । दिन की आखिरी चुनौती नदी पार करने की थी जिसको सुरक्षा उपकरणों के साथ पार करना था । खैर 13000 फीट ऊँचाई चढ़ चुके लोगों के लिए यह मात्र एक खेल था जिसे सबने हँसते हँसते पूर्ण किया । शाम होते ही समूह के कुछ चंचल साथियों ने, जो भली भाँति यह जानते थे कि आज कैंप की अंतिम रात्रि होगी, कुछ अनूठे माध्यम से ऐसी अंताछरी खेली जिसमें एक ही गाने को तोड़ मरोड़ के विविध रूपों में प्रस्तुत किया । आज अगर आर डी बर्मन होते तो शायद अपनी आत्महत्या कर लेते । जैसे-तैसे उत्तेजित साथियों पर शीतल जल ड़ालकर उनके अंदर की अग्नि को प्रज्वलित होने से रोका गया । रात में वर्षा के कारण ठंड बढ़ चुकी थी पर बकरथच जैसी भी नहीं थी जिसने WATERPROOF स्लीपिंग बैग की अवधारणा को भी गलत सिद्ध कर दिया था । इस प्रकार एक और दिन कुशलता पूर्वक व्यतीत हो गया ।

05  मई, 2016 दिन गुरुवार


सुबह 4 बजे ही आँख खुल गयी और मैं अनायास ही अपने स्लीपिंग बैग में पड़ा पड़ा इंतज़ार करने लगा की कब थोड़ा सा प्रकाश हो और मैं अपनी दैनिक क्रियाओं को सम्पन्न करूँ क्यूंकी आज हम 95 लोगों के पास केवल दो अस्थाई टॉयलेट थे और समय के साथ टॉयलेट में पहले जाने की प्रतिस्पर्धा बढ़ना भी स्वाभाविक था । किसी तरह सुबह के 4:30 बजे और मैं अपने टेंट से बाहर निकला, चारो ओर अंधेरा देख कर मन भयभीत हो गया जैसे बचपन में पढ़ी एवं सुनी गयी कहानियों के सच होने का समय आ गया था । कुछ समय पश्चात मानव जाति के दर्शन हुये और मेरा आत्मविश्वास बढ़ा और इस आत्मविश्वास का फायदा उठाते हुये मैंने अपनी दैनिक क्रियाएँ 5:15 तक सम्पन्न कर ली और टेंट के बाहर ही बैठ कर ठंडी ठंडी पवन का आनंद लेने लगा ।

सुबह 6:30 पर चाय मिली और 8:30 पर अल्पाहार ग्रहण करके हम लोगों ने अपना बैग बांधा और आगे की पैदल यात्रा के लिए तैयार हो गए। हम करीब 09:00 बजे उन वादियों को अलविदा कह कर वहाँ से सोलांग वैली के लिए निकले । अब हमें लगभग 6.5 किमी का सफर पैदल तय करना था ।  सभी लोग उत्साह के साथ एक पंक्ति में आगे बढ़ रहे थे, जहाँ मार्ग में कुछ लोग समय निकाल कर प्रकृति की गोद में SELFIE का आनंद भी ले रहे थे वहीं कुछ लोग अपनी यात्रा के अनुभव अपने सफर के साथियों के साथ बाँट रहे थे। क़रीब 11:00 बजे तक हम सभी सोलांग वैली पहुँच चुके थे और दिन के प्रधान भोजन का इंतज़ार करने लगे । कुछ ही समय में भोजन तैयार हो गया और सभी भोजन ग्रहण करने के पश्चात वापस लौटने के लिए बस की राह देखने लगे ।  कुछ ही समय के उपरांत सभी ने ट्रेवेलर में अपनी अपनी जगह सुनिश्चित की और मनाली के लिए प्रस्थान किया । मनाली से दिल्ली के लिए हमारी बस शाम को 4:00 बजे थी, इसलिए लगभग 3:30 घंटे का बहुमूल्य समय हमें मनाली की माल रोड़ में सैर करने के लिए दिया गया । हालाँकि दोपहर का समय था, लेकिन मनाली का मौसम बहुत सुहावना हो रहा था, पूरी माल रोड़ सैलानियों से भरी पड़ी थी, नव विवाहित दम्पतियों का भी हुजूम चरम पर था । जहाँ एक ओर कुछ साथी कपड़े खरीद रहे थे वहीं कुछ अपने विवाह के उपरांत मनाली आने की योजना पर काम कर रहे थे । हमने भी लोकल फूड का आनंद लिया और पास ही स्थित बौद्ध MONASTERY में कुछ समय बिताया । चार बजे तक सभी लोग प्राइवेट बस स्टैंड पहुँच चुके थे जहाँ से सभी को दिल्ली की बस में आरूढ़ होना था  । अब प्रश्न यह था की कौन किस बस का चयन करेगा और किस बस में फ़ैकल्टी एवं नारियाँ जाएँगी ? एक ओर कुछ साथियों में परस्पर दोस्ती अत्यंत प्रगाढ़ हो चुकी थी, वहीं कुछ लोगों में परस्पर रोष भी व्याप्त था। अन्ततः सारे संभव क्रमचय एवं संचय के बाद लोगों ने अपनी अपनी जगह सुनिश्चित की और दोनों बसों ने 4:30 बजे शाम को दिल्ली के लिए प्रस्थान किया । अभी हमने लगभग 1 घण्टे का सफर ही तय किया था कि दूसरे बस के मार्ग में खराब होने की सूचना हमारे यात्रा प्रतिनिधि के पास आयी, अब मैं मन ही मन ईश्वर को इस बात का धन्यवाद दे रहा था कि उसने मुझे समय पर सद्बुद्धि दी और मैंने इस बस में आरूढ़ होने का निर्णय लिया । जहाँ एक ओर बस बहुत तीव्र गति से अपना मार्ग तय कर रही थी वहीं दूसरी ओर कुछ लोग निंद्रा के आगोष में आ चुके थे और कुछ लोग बस में लगे ELECTRONIC यन्त्र में चलचित्र का आनंद ले रहे थे । मैंने भी अपने नयनों को कुछ आराम प्रदान करने की कोशिश की लेकिन अग्रिम सीट पर स्थापित होने के कारण, सोने में सफलता नहीं मिली । अभी रात्रि के लगभग 9:00 बजे थे, बाहर बारिश भी हो रही थी, अचानक बस एक ढाबे पर रुकी । बाहर देखा तो पता चला कि यह वही सुनियोजित स्थान था जहाँ हमें रात्रि का भोजन ग्रहण करना था ।  हमारी दूसरी बस को आने में समय था, अत: सभी दूसरी बस का इंतज़ार किए बिना भोजन लेने की पंक्ति में लग गए । हालाँकि भोजन पर्याप्त मात्रा में उपलब्ध था लेकिन शायद मौसम ने उसे बेस्वाद कर दिया था, किसी तरह लोगों ने अल्पतम एवं आवश्यक मात्रा में भोज्य पदार्थ ग्रहण किया और हमारे यात्रा प्रतिनिधि को भोजन से संबन्धित शिकायतें  देने लगे, हमारा यात्रा प्रतिनिधि बहुत ही सज्जन प्रकृति का था इसलिए उसने बड़े ही सहज भाव से मामले को संभाला और हम आगे की यात्रा के लिए बस में बैठ गए । भोजन ग्रहण करने के बाद जहाँ एक ओर बस की रफ्तार और भी तेज़ हो गयी थी वहीं लोग धीरे-धीरे निंद्रा के आगोष में जाते दिखाई दे रहे थे । मेरी भी कब आँख लग गयी, पता नहीं चला ।

06  मई, 2016 दिन शुक्रवार

सुबह 6:00 बजे अचानक से आँख खुली तो देखा बस एक मेट्रो स्टेशन के बाहर खड़ी थी और सभी लोग जल्दी-जल्दी नीचे उतर रहे थे । मैंने भी अपने स्वप्न को बीच में ही त्याग दिया और सारे सामान को एकत्रित करते हुये बस को अलविदा कह दिया । यहाँ से लोगों ने अपने-अपने गंतव्य के अनुसार दिल्ली मेट्रो की सेवाओं का उपयोग किया और निर्धारित स्थान पर पहुँच गए । कुछ लोगों को दिल्ली में रुकना था तो कुछ अपने घर जाना चाहते थे, कुछ दिल्ली घूमना चाहते थे तो कुछ को अगली ट्रेन से वडोदरा के लिए रवाना होना था । अत : लोगों ने अपने अपने विकल्प चुन लिए और इस प्रकार हमारी इस यात्रा का अन्त हुआ ।



( सौरभ सिंह, भारतीय रेल इंजीनियरिंग  सेवा – 2013 परिवीक्षार्थी )

Saurabh Singh

Calling on The President of India

One of the exciting things which take place at the end of probation is ‘Visit to the President of India’. It is officially called as ‘Calling on the President of India”. All the Group A services officers are appointed by the President and work under his pleasure. Although , President has delegated this responsibilities to various ministries but ceremonially he is our appointing authority. So, almost all the ministries let their probationers call on the President of India before they actually start their working. No doubt, we all wait for this moment, for the photographs and for the ‘likes’.

Visit to Rashtrapati Bhawan is conducted very formally. All the probationers are taken at once, you can’t enter there own your own. Moreover , the security is so high that you will not be allowed individual entry. Timings are specified and everything proceeds as per the plan. If you miss your group , you may have very hard time reaching there.

Darbar Hall is  place where The President meets the probationers. In-fact, all major ceremonies are done here. We reach half-hour before the arrival of president in Darbar Hall. There , we go through mock exercises for group photograph. The security officers of Rashtrapati Bhawan brief us about protocols for various activities.

Who will speak what is already decided and those who have to speak practice a lot to make it flawless. Generally, One probationer from every service gives 2 minute speech about the training which has been imparted in the service, on behalf of his batch.

The sequence of activities after the arrival of President is as follows:

  • Opening speech by Member of Railway Board/Head of Ministry.
  • Probationers share their experience of training.
  • Address by the President of India.
  • Closure speech by Member of Railway Board/Head of Ministry.
  • Then we go for group Photograph.


After photo session ,we proceed towards Banquet Hall for refreshments. Even the samosa of Rashtrapati Bhawan tastes good. We exit the Durbar Hall and take lots of photograph for Facebook.

The profile pics may change later but memories will remain forever.

The President said that the Engineering Service would provide the officers an opportunity to serve the society and they would be entrusted with tremendous opportunities at a young age. They should give back to society as the society had invested in them. Besides, they should remember Mahatma Gandhi’s talisman of thinking of the welfare of the poorest of the poor in order to arrive at correct decisions. If they consider their job as a mission, they would be able to have maximum job satisfaction.



View of Darbar Hall


A group of probationers of Indian Railway Service of Engineers, Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers and Railway Protection Force called on the President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee today (May 17, 2016) at Rashtrapati Bhavan.
Speaking on the occasion, the President said that the Indian Railways is not only one of the largest rail networks in the world but one of those which are well managed. With 66,000 Km of route length, the track network of the Indian railways stretches to almost every nook and corner of the country. It carries 23 million passengers daily. He stated that Indian Railways has a deeper meaning than being a mere transportation system. It integrates far-flung areas of the country. Like the Indian Post Office, it is one of the few organizations in the country which have a truly national character having influence over the whole country. In undertaking journeys the individual identities of the people who are travelling are replaced by the fact that they all are passengers.
The President said that the Indian Railways is not just a commercial organization. It has also extended help and support to the needy when required. It has carried on the tremendous responsibility of economic development of the country. However, Indian Railways is also faced with manifold challenges which include ensuring safety, security and the punctual running of trains.
The President urged the probationers to always remember that through the services they were not merely earning their livelihood but were making a meaningful contribution to this great nation to which they belong. He said that they were getting a tremendous opportunity of serving the country. They must always show ingenuity, innovation and initiative while discharging their duties.



Leave for IAS preparation in Railways

Recently,Ministry of Railways issued a letter to all the Centralised Training Insititutes about giving one year extraordinary leave for preparation of CSE/ESE. I am posting that letter below. The letter is self explanatory however main points are as below.

At the time of joining your service, you will be given two option.

First option is to take 1 year Extraordinary leave for appearing in the next examination of your choice from date of joining itself.

The second option is to give a decleration that you are not interested in giving any exam and henceforth you will not appear in exam after joining your respective services.

If you go for second option , then you will not be able to write CSE/ESE in future.

If you go for first option, then you will  be able to give next attempt in examination of your choice,however salary and passes will not be given.

After taking Extraordinary leave, you have to report to your institute. If you fail to do so then it will be treated that you are no more interested in joining the service.

After taking Extraordinary leave, you have to give a deceleration that you will not further appear in CSE/ESE, if you don’t give this decleration than you will not be able to join your service.

There will not be any effect on your seniority because of Extraordinary leave as compared to your other batchmates.






Tips from ESE Electrical Topper(AIR 6)

This post is written by Anas Feroz, ESE 2015 AIR 6 from Electrical Engineering. He can be reached at



I got selected in BARC, PGCIL, HPCL, IOCL , NTPC, DMRC and ONGC , thanks for the reason that i did’nt gave up on my ESE preparation. Most of the interview questions were from the conventional questions i was practicing.

Considering the fact that you have been called for  PSU interviews, I’m assuming that you have a good command over technical topics from your gate preparation.

Now what extra is required is to go through the theory because all psu’s will ask you theory questions in the interview. Now if you’re preparing for ESE you ‘re theory part will be taken care of automatically. You also need to go through the psu website and jot down some important projects, board members name, CSR projects, etc that might help you in the introduction part.

Give it only 1 hour before the day of the interview.

Also you can save the time on the interview day by taking your notes copy or the company notes and reading them there itself.

I’ll highlight some important points regarding some companies.


Prepare 5 topics as they’ll ask you to name 5 of your favorite subjects, in the order of your competency. The questions are specifically the same as we practice in conventional for ESE. I got delighted when they asked me to draw circuits and waveforms. They’ll start from the very basics and then increase there level of questions. Don’t worry if you’re not able to answer them. Just focus on your approach. Give them some hint or direction as to how the question can be tackled. I was able to answer 60% of the questions and got selected. If you’re interview is lasting for more than 45 minutes then you’re in their good books.



Since i’m from electrical background i’ll highlight some topics from which the questions can be expected.

Power system Protection.

Electrical engineering basics.

Advantages of Grid system.



Regenerative braking.

Carbon credits.

Power system Protection.

For oil companies-


Learn about the refineries and their location. Dont forget to remember the first or the oldest one as it will make the introduction about the company sound better. Go through the Psu’s website and find whatever technical projects you can find. If you’re BTP is in the same topic you can talk about it. Also read about their CSR activities.

Also go through Electrical engineering interview questions and answers . You can read 1 to 2 chapters daily during lunch or dinner.


All the best.

Comparison of GATE and ESE syllabus for Civil Engineering

SUBJECT                                    GATE UPSC ESE

Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.

Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.

Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.



Engineering Mathematics and Numerical Analysis


Structural Engineering

Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.








Solid Mechanics

Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.


Solid Mechanics

Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.




 Structural Analysis

Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.





Structural Analysis

Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.


Construction Materials

Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen.




Building Materials

Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria; Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.

Construction Management

Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.

Construction Practice, Planning and Management:

Construction – Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.

Concrete Structures

Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length;

Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:
Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure. 
Steel Structures

Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

Design of Steel Structures:

Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.

Geotechnical Engineering Soil Mechanics

Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

Geo-technical Engineering

Soil exploration – planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.






Foundation Engineering

Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.

Foundation Engineering

Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.

Water Resources Engineering Fluid Mechanics

Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.


Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow.

Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow

Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.

Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power

Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.




Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.


Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs.






Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

Water Resources Engineering

Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources – storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.

Environmental Engineering Water and Waste Water

Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

Water Supply Engineering

Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.

Waste Water Engineering

Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of

sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.


Municipal Solid Wastes

Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).


Solid Waste Management

Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.

Air Pollution

Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

Air, Noise pollution and Ecology

Concepts & general methodology.



Transportation Engineering Transportation Infrastructure

Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments


Geometric design of railway track


Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design.

Highway Pavements

Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011; Distresses in concrete pavements.

Traffic Engineering

Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.


Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.



Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.



Railways Systems

Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.




Terminology, layouts and planning.



Layout, planning & design.

Geomatics Engineering Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.

Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).


Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.



Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.