|Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.
Engineering Mathematics and Numerical Analysis
|Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.
Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.
Elastic constants, Stress, plane stress, Strains, plane strain, Mohr’s circle of stress and strain, Elastic theories of failure, Principal Stresses, Bending, Shear and Torsion.
| Structural Analysis
Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Basics of strength of materials, Types of stresses and strains, Bending moments and shear force, concept of bending and shear stresses; Analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures; Trusses, beams, plane frames; Rolling loads, Influence Lines, Unit load method & other methods; Free and Forced vibrations of single degree and multi degree freedom system; Suspended Cables; Concepts and use of Computer Aided Design.
Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen.
Stone, Lime, Glass, Plastics, Steel, FRP, Ceramics, Aluminum, Fly Ash, Basic Admixtures, Timber, Bricks and Aggregates: Classification, properties and selection criteria; Cement: Types, Composition, Properties, Uses, Specifications and various Tests; Lime & Cement Mortars and Concrete: Properties and various Tests; Design of Concrete Mixes: Proportioning of aggregates and methods of mix design.
Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.
|Construction Practice, Planning and Management:
Construction – Planning, Equipment, Site investigation and Management including Estimation with latest project management tools and network analysis for different Types of works; Analysis of Rates of various types of works; Tendering Process and Contract Management, Quality Control, Productivity, Operation Cost; Land acquisition; Labour safety and welfare.
Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length;
Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
|Design of Concrete and Masonry structures:
Limit state design for bending, shear, axial compression and combined forces; Design of beams, Slabs, Lintels, Foundations, Retaining walls, Tanks, Staircases; Principles of pre-stressed concrete design including materials and methods; Earthquake resistant design of structures; Design of Masonry Structure.
Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.
|Design of Steel Structures:
Principles of Working Stress methods, Design of tension and compression members, Design of beams and beam column connections, built-up sections, Girders, Industrial roofs, Principles of Ultimate load design.
|Geotechnical Engineering||Soil Mechanics
Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
Soil exploration – planning & methods, Properties of soil, classification, various tests and inter-relationships; Permeability & Seepage, Compressibility, consolidation and Shearing resistance, Earth pressure theories and stress distribution in soil; Properties and uses of geo-synthetics.
Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.
Types of foundations & selection criteria, bearing capacity, settlement analysis, design and testing of shallow & deep foundations; Slope stability analysis, Earthen embankments, Dams and Earth retaining structures: types, analysis and design, Principles of ground modifications.
|Water Resources Engineering||Fluid Mechanics
Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.
Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow.
|Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow, Pipe Flow
Fluid properties; Dimensional Analysis and Modeling; Fluid dynamics including flow kinematics and measurements; Flow net; Viscosity, Boundary layer and control, Drag, Lift, Principles in open channel flow, Flow controls. Hydraulic jump; Surges; Pipe networks.
Hydraulic Machines and Hydro power
Various pumps, Air vessels, Hydraulic turbines – types, classifications & performance parameters; Power house – classification and layout, storage, pondage, control of supply.
Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s law.
Hydrological cycle, Ground water hydrology, Well hydrology and related data analysis; Streams and their gauging; River morphology; Flood, drought and their management; Capacity of Reservoirs.
Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.
|Water Resources Engineering
Multipurpose uses of Water, River basins and their potential; Irrigation systems, water demand assessment; Resources – storages and their yields; Water logging, canal and drainage design, Gravity dams, falls, weirs, Energy dissipaters, barrage Distribution works, Cross drainage works and head-works and their design; Concepts in canal design, construction & maintenance; River training, measurement and analysis of rainfall.
|Environmental Engineering||Water and Waste Water
Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
|Water Supply Engineering
Sources, Estimation, quality standards and testing of water and their treatment; Rural, Institutional and industrial water supply; Physical, chemical and biological characteristics and sources of water, Pollutants in water and its effects, Estimation of water demand; Drinking water Standards, Water Treatment Plants, Water distribution networks.
Waste Water Engineering
Planning & design of domestic waste water, sewage collection and disposal; Plumbing Systems. Components and layout of
sewerage system; Planning & design of Domestic Waste-water disposal system; Sludge management including treatment, disposal and re-use of treated effluents; Industrial waste waters and Effluent Treatment Plants including institutional and industrial sewage management.
|Municipal Solid Wastes
Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).
|Solid Waste Management
Sources & classification of solid wastes along with planning & design of its management system; Disposal system, Beneficial aspects of wastes and Utilization by Civil Engineers.
Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.
|Air, Noise pollution and Ecology
Concepts & general methodology.
|Transportation Engineering||Transportation Infrastructure
Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments
Geometric design of railway track
Airport runway length, taxiway and exit taxiway design.
Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011; Distresses in concrete pavements.
Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.
Planning & construction methodology, Alignment and geometric design; Traffic Surveys and Controls; Principles of Flexible and Rigid pavements design.
Alignment, methods of construction, disposal of muck, drainage, lighting and ventilation.
Terminology, Planning, designs and maintenance practices; track modernization.
Terminology, layouts and planning.
Layout, planning & design.
|Geomatics Engineering||Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).
Classification of surveys, various methodologies, instruments & analysis of measurement of distances, elevation and directions; Field astronomy, Global Positioning System; Map preparation; Photogrammetry; Remote sensing concepts; Survey Layout for culverts, canals, bridges, road/railway alignment and buildings, Setting out of Curves.
Basic knowledge of Engineering geology & its application in projects.
Whenever you apply for any job, the very first and important question that comes in mind is “What will be the package /salary and allowances etc.?”
I have found many candidates always concerned with the salary and allowances they will get in different type of jobs like PSU, State Government, Central Government, R & D organizations, etc. So, I thought to share the pay structure of the PSU, State Government and Central Government jobs in India. I am not going to compare the nature of job, I am only going to tell you the pay structure and the initial salary you get in PSU, State Government and Central Government. I have considered the Pay Band-3 in CDA scale and Executive Grade IDA Scale in PSUs.
|Central PSU (IDA Scale)||State PSU (CDA Scale)||Central Government (CDA Scale)||State Government (CDA Scale)||R & D Organization (BARC/DRDO etc.) (CDA Scale)|
|Basic Pay (INR)||16400 or 20600 or 24900||15600+5400||15600+5400||15600+5400||15600+5400|
|DA rate on 31st Dec. 2015||107.9 %||119 %||119 %||119 %||119 %|
|Cafeteria Allowance rate||46 to 51 %||NIL||NIL||NIL||NIL|
|HRA rate (depend on place of posting)||10 or 20 or 30 %||10 or 20 or 30 %||10 or 20 or 30 %||10 or 20 or 30 %||10 or 20 or 30 %|
|Lease Amount||Approx. 16000-21000||May or May not be||NIL||NIL||NIL|
|Conveyance/Transportation Allowance (depend on place of posting)||Approx. 3000-5500||1600 or 3200 plus DA||1600 or 3200 plus DA||1600 or 3200 plus DA||1600 or 3200 plus DA|
|Telephone Reimbursement||Approx. 500-1500||CUG System||CUG System||CUG System||CUG System|
General Formula for Salary Calculation
Gross = Basic * (100 + DA rate + Cafeteria rate + HRA rate)/100 + Conveyance Allowance
The Various deductions in the salary may be under following heads:
IDA Scale : EPF, LIC Scheme, Social Security, Income Tax etc.
CDA Scale : NPS, CGHS, Professional Tax, Income Tax etc.
EPF Vs. NPS
EPF refers to Employee Provident Fund which has generally fix annual rate of interest and is a compulsory instrument of Tax saving for the government organizations whereas NPS refers to New Pension Scheme, started 2004 onwards appointments to the Central Government Employees and Sate Government Employees. The NPS is also a compulsory instrument of Tax saving for the Government Employees governed by this scheme. The rate of return is variable (may be positive, negative or zero) in NPS because it is based on the market value of the funds invested in Equity.
CDA Scale Vs IDA Scale ?
CDA means Central Government Dearness Allowance while IDA means Industrial Dearness Allowance. CDA is applicable to the Central government, state government and state PSUs while IDA is applicable mostly to all the Central PSUs. The DA revision is half yearly in CDA whereas it is quarterly in IDA pattern. CDA and IDA are calculated based on the All India Consumer Price Index number/ Market rates/ Other Price Indices etc.
|IDA rate (%)||CDA rate (%)|
|From 01 January, 2015||100.3||113|
|From 01 April, 2015||100.5||113|
|From 01 July, 2015||102.6||119|
|From 01 October, 2015||107.9||119|
Disclaimer– Above article compares the pay and allowances as they exist as of now. When 7th pay commission report will be implemented , it will be updated in that context.